Here we have mentioned most frequently asked Civil Engineering Interview Questions and Answers specially for freshers and experienced.


 

1. What are the responsibilities of a construction manager?

Ans:

The responsibilities of a construction manager are
• Cost Estimates
• Pre-purchase of selected materials
• Selection of bidders for bidding phase
• Analysis of proposals
• Construction contract negotiations
• Construction Scheduling and Monitoring
• Cost control of construction
• Construction supervision

2. List out the potential risk factors for workers on the construction site?

Ans:

Potential risk factors for worker on the construction site
• Falls from heights
• Scaffold and Trench collapse
• Electric shock and arc blast
• Repetitive motion injuries
• Not using personal protective equipment correctly

3. What is OSHA compliance?

Ans:

OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Act; its motive is to fulfill the health and safety requirement of employees and workers. It is a standard for health and safety that is followed by every industrial segment and corporate offices throughout U.S.A.

4. Mention what are the composition of a landfill?

Ans:

For secure landfill, there are four critical elements
• The bottom liner
• A leachate collection system
• A cover
• Natural hydrogeologic settings

5. For the construction project what capital cost has to be taken in consideration?

Ans:

• Land acquisition ( Assembly, holding and improvement)
• Planning and feasibility studies
• Construction ( Material, equipment, and labor)
• Construction financing ( Bank loan)
• Insurance and taxes during construction
• Owner’s general office overhead
• Inspection and testing
• Equipment and furnishing not included in the construction
• Field supervision, architectural and engineering design

6. List out some of the software used in the construction sector to estimate cost and monitoring expenses?

Ans:

• Tally System
• Sage
• Maxwell System
• Premier construction software
• eTakeoff
• Construction partner, etc.

7. What is reinforced concrete?

Ans:

Reinforced concrete have steels bars or mesh in them, which gives extra strength to the construction.

8. What are the different types of foundation?

Ans:

Three main types of foundation are
• Basement: In this a basement is prepared first on top of it building is constructed
• Crawl space: A crawl space is a raised foundation, it is built above the ground, just allowing enough space to crawl underneath
• Slab: In this foundation, concrete is directly poured into the pit made in the ground.

9. Explain what is Hybrid Foundation?

Ans:

Hybrid Foundation is usually used for high rise building, it contains both soil supported mat and piles. This type of foundation is helpful in reducing the amount of the settlement.

10. What are the common ways of demolition?

Ans:

• Hydro-demolition
• Pressure Bursting
• Dismantling



 

11. Explain what is floating slab foundation?

Ans:

A floating concrete foundation is a type of mat foundation that consists of the hollow mat formed by a grid of thick reinforced concrete walls between two thick reinforced concrete slabs.

12. Explain what is flashing?

Ans:

Flashing is an extended construction that is done to seal and protects joints in a building from water penetration. Flashing is installed at the intersecting roofs, walls and parapets.

13. Mention different types of roof systems?

Ans:

• Slate or Stone roofs
• Wood shingle roofs
• Metal roofing systems

14. Explain what are the phases inspections are done by local authority while construction?

Ans:

Various inspections during the construction includes
• Site Inspection
• Pre-construction or first construction Inspection
• Foundation inspection(before placing of concrete)
• Framing inspection ( before insulating or covering frame)
• Insulation inspection ( After insulation is completed)
• Final inspection (after all construction is completed, and permits are received)

15. List out some of the checking’s, done at the completion of construction?

Ans:

Some of the checking done on the exterior of the construction is
• Utility connections
• Drainage
• Retaining walls
• Compaction of fill material
• Caulking at opening
• Storm sewer system
• Safety provision ( terraces, porches, areaways)
• Accessory buildings
• Pavement edging
• Protection against moisture penetration
• Design of dwelling structure

16. Explain what is alternate bid?

Ans:

Alternate bid is the amount stated in the bid to be deducted or added from the base bid amount. Alternate bid is proposed when there is a use of alternate materials or methods of construction.

17. Explain what is change order request?

Ans:

Change order request is a written document issued or given by the owner, requesting an adjustment to the contract sum or an extension of the contract time. Usually, it is issued by the architect or owners representative.

18. What does a construction cost covers and what does not?

Ans:

A construction cost covers material, labor, equipment and services, contractor’s overhead and profit and other direct construction costs. While, it does not cover compensation paid to the architect, consultant or engineers, cost of the land and other cost that is owner’s responsibility.

19. Explain what is Critical Path Method (C.P.M)?

Ans:

Critical Path Method is strategy and method of representing the respective tasks and activities involved in the construction through a symbolic diagram.

20. What is demising walls?

Ans:

Demising wall is used for the boundary that separates your land or house from neighbor’s house




 

21. What is labor and material payment bond?

Ans:

It is a bond between the owner and the main contractor. Where a contractor guarantees for payment to the owner if he fails to pay for all labor, materials, equipment’s or services in accordance with the contract.

22. Explain what is progress payment?

Ans:

It is a payment done by owner to the contractor; it is a difference between the completed work and material stored and a pre-determined schedule of values or unit costs.

23. Explain what is structural frames or systems?

Ans:

Structural frames are a load bearing assembly of beams and columns on a foundation. Normally, the columns and beams are generally fabricated off site and assembled on site.

24. Explain what is zoning permit?

Ans:

Zoning permit is a document issued by governing urban authority permitting land to be used for a particular purpose.

25. Explain what is the release of lien?

Ans:

Release of lien is a written document executed by an individual or firm supplying labor, material or professional service on a project, which release his mechanic’s lien against the project property.

26. What is Architect-Prepared Contract?

Ans:

Architect- Prepared Contract is an agreement prepared in-house by the architect between owner and architect, and often reviewed by an attorney, before its execution. It is a legal contract, and it includes all terms and conditions including adequate legal protection for both the parties.

27. Explain what is 1/8 on the architect ruler denotes?

Ans:

1/8 on the ruler is infact a scale that converts 1/8 inch on to the drawing to 1 foot. It would represent a drawing with a scale of 1/8”= 1 foot.

28. List out some of the software program that can be useful for architect?

Ans:

• AutoCAD
• Revit
• 3DS Max
• Sketchup
• Photoshop
• Adobe creative suites
• Microsoft office
• Digital Media

29. Explain what are the skills required to become an architect?

Ans:

• Conceptual understanding of designing models
• Basic knowledge of computer and architect related software programs
• Engineering ability
• Business aptitude
• Legal knowledge
• Designing 3D models

30. What things architect have to take care of before starting any project?

Ans:

• Whether the owner has proper planning permission
• Whether the building has a certain listed grade approved
• Knowledge of building appliances and materials that includes the cost as well
• Need to take environmental factors into consideration


 

31. Explain how you can use different dimension tools in CAD? What are the different dimensions available?

Ans:

If you are using CAD and want to use dimension tools, then go to CAD>Dimensions and you can have access to a wide range of dimensions like
• Manual dimensions
• Interior dimensions
• Auto exterior dimensions
• Auto interior dimensions
• End to end dimensions
• Point to point dimensions
• Angular dimensions
• Display temporary dimensions
• Moving objects using dimensions

32. Explain how you can turn off the display for dimension in CAD?

Ans:

The display of your dimensions can be turned off in CAD for that you have to go under Floor Plan View and follow the following steps
• In floor plan active, select Tools – Display Options
• Scroll down to the dimensions- Automatic and Dimensions- Manual layers and remove the checkmarks from the Disp column
• When you click OK, the display of the dimensions in your plan will be turned off

33. Which are the top apps for you civil engineeer?

Ans:

Some of the best apps
• Evernote
• STEEL
• Dropbox
• Instagram
• Sketchbook
• Photoshop Express
• Flipboard
• Magic Plan
• Houzz
• AutoCAD Ws

34. What are wooden shingles?

Ans:

Wooden shingles are rectangular in shapes, and they are like slats or sheets that are nailed to the exterior surface. Shingling is a traditional weather proofing method for building.

35. List out some of the common problems that architect have to tackle it?

Ans:

• When client is not sure about what they want
• When there is a limited budget
• When customer requires custom design at standard design cost
• When architect has to work with limited space

36. How to build the floor to ceiling bookcase?

Ans:

To build a floor to ceiling bookcase
• First measure the distance between the floor and ceiling
• Cut two boards of the length of that distance
• Cut two boards with the width you require
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side with 2 inch nails. Keep a gap about one or two inches between each nail
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side boards with 2 inch nail. This will create a frame of your bookcase. Add the shelves to the bookcase the way you want and then paint it.

37. What should be the standard roof height like to be?

Ans:

For inhabited building, standard height for roof should be one or two storeys tall. If you don’t need to make roof taller and yet you want make it look bigger from outside use a mansard roof containing multiple floors. The roof of the room can be adjusted by changing its pitch or by adding a parapet.

38. List out the types of roofs?

Ans:

• Half hipped roof
• Dutch gable roof
• Skillion roof
• Gambrel roof
• Gull wind roof
• Mansard roof
• Bell cast roof
• Sawtooth roof
• Monitor roof, etc.

39. For what building Built-on balconies are preferable? What are the advantages?

Ans:

Built on balconies are mainly designed for retrofitting older buildings. This free standing balcony is supported in front of the facade on four columns. They are backed to the wall with brackets.
The advantage of built-on balconies are
• Old balconies can be dismantled, and the new ones can be erected immediately in front of the faced without disturbing the inner structure of the building
• The work takes place outside of the house, so there is no interference to the interior of the building

40. What things you need to take care of before building a kitchen island?

Ans:

Before you start building a kitchen island, you need to take care of
• Design the kitchen island according to the need- if it is only for cooking purpose then use less space, but if it is also for eating then design it accordingly
• List out what appliances you need for your kitchen island
• How high the counter should be
• How much storage space should you required
• Working sides surrounding the kitchen island should have 42 inches of space as a minimum around the kitchen island. Don’t plan Kitchen Island if it makes your kitchen more congested.



 

41. Explain what is the difference between built area and super built up area?

Ans:

• Built up area: It includes your carpet area plus area covered by walls, pillars and ducts. It is usually 10% more from the carpet area
• Super built up area: It includes your built up area plus the area that you use as building amenities like passage to lift, stairs and lifts, gym, club, etc.

42. What is the ideal size of the living room ranges from small to large size?

Ans:

• Very small size living room= 7x10ft ( for two seater sofas on one side of the room)
• Small living room= 10x13ft ( for two 2 seater sofa)
• Medium living room= 12×18 (for 3 Seater sofa)
• Large living room= 15×20 ( for 4 seater or 5 seater sofa)

43. What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

Ans:

The major steps involved in the process of concreting are as follows:
1. Batching
2. Mixing
3. Transporting and placing of concrete
4. Compacting.

Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.
Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.
Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.
Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.

44. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Ans:

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.

45. What do you understand by “preset” during the installation process of bridge bearings?

Ans:

During the installation of bridge bearings the size of the upper plates is reduced to save the material costs. This process is known as preset. Generally the upper bearing plate comprises of the following components:
Length of bearing
2 x irreversible movement.
2 x reversible movement.
The bearing initially is placed right in the middle point of the upper bearing plate. No directional effects of irreversible movement is considered. But since the irreversible movement usually takes place in one direction only the displaced direction is placed away from the midpoint. In such cases the length of the upper plate is equal to the length of the length of the bearing + irreversible movement + 2 x reversible movement.

46. Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?

Ans:

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.

47. What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

Ans:

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:
Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.

48. In the design of bridge arguments what considerations should be made to select the orientation of the wing walls?

Ans:

Some of the most common arrangements of wing walls in cases of bridge arguments are as follows:
Wing walls parallel to abutments: This method is considered to take least amount of time to build and is simple as well. But on the downside this method is not the most economical. The advantage of this type of design being that they cause the least amount of disturbance to the slope embankment.
Wing walls at an angle to abutments: This design method is considered to be the most economical in terms of material cost.
Wing walls perpendicular to abutments: The characteristic of this design is it provides an alignment continuous with the bridge decks lending a support to the parapets.

49. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?

Ans:

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.

50. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?

Ans:

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.




 

51. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?

Ans:

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

52. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?

Ans:

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

53. How do you measure concrete?

Ans:

Cubic feet, Cubic yards, Cubic Meter

54. Which is stronger solid steel rod or hollow steel pipe?

Ans:

On a per pound basis, steel pipe is stronger in bending and is less likely to buckle in axial compression.

55. What is the tallest man made structure in the world?

Ans:

The tallest man made structure is the KVLY-TV mast which is 2063 feet tall. The worlds tallest man made structure is Burj Dubai which is 800 meter tall.

56. What is braced excavation all about?

Ans:

Excavations are braced to prevent the cave-in of surrounding unstable soil.

57. What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?

Ans:

Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.

Two common examples are:

a) Mixing a soil amendment such as lime into weak clayey soil and re-comPActing to improve soil-bearing caPAcity (often done under the road base in highway construction)

b) Installing plastic or composite webbing layers (called geo-grid material) alternating with comPActed soil to produce a stronger sloped soil structure (often done on steep roadway embankments to improve strength and stability)

58. What is aggregate?

Ans:

Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.

59. What year was the keystone power plant in Indiana County constructed?

Ans:

1967 began commercial operation on unit 1.

60. What is the force exerted by the Tacoma narrows bridge?

Ans:

The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping.


 

61. What are the uses of alloys in daily life and how are alloys made?

Ans:

Alloying is not always done to produce a ‘superior’ material, but to produce materials having a desired requirement in the industry or elsewhere. A classic case is of lead solder (containing lead & tin), in which the melting point of the constituent elements are lowered, not necessarily a desirable property.

Alloying can be carried out using hot press method (a sheet of material is sandwiched with alloying material), rolling the heated base metal in a drum full of alloying metal powder, using hot spraying, galvanizing (dipping the base in a molten solution of alloying material) etc. Sometimes the alloying material is added in small proportions to the molten base metal (e.g., in production of different types of steel).

62. What is the worlds largest concrete dam?

Ans:

The Grand Coulee Dam is said to be the largest concrete dam. Currently the world’s largest concrete dam is the Itaipu Dam, an accomplishment of two neighboring countries, Brazil and Paraguay in South America.

Though it is not finished yet, the Three Gorges (or Sandapong) Dam on the Yangtze River in China will take over as the largest upon its completion, which is slated for 2009.

63. What are the main reasons of building collapse?

Ans:

There are several reasons for building collapse. Passage of time is the main reason. Also, weak foundations, natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc., are the major reasons for building collapse. Bombing and destruction is also another major reason.

64. State the applications of modulus of elasticity.

Ans:

Modulus of elasticity is related to the flexibility of the material. The value of modulus of elasticity is pretty important in case of deflection of different materials used in building construction.

65. How are the freeway bridges built?

Ans:

The traffic that is likely to go over the bridge at a time is estimated and the cement, rocked with rebar stanchions is placed over the freeway to build a bridge. Off-ramp from freeway to the bridge and on-ramp from the bridge to the freeway are constructed. Cement slabs are used to build a platform.

66. What is the basic difference in absorption, adsorption, and sorption?

Ans:

Absorption refers to the phenomenon where an atom, molecule or ions enter any bulk phase like gas, solid or liquid. Absorption refers to the phenomenon where energy of photon is transferred to other entity.
Adsorption is similar to absorption. It refers to the surface rather than a volume. Adsorption takes place when the gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of solid. A substance diffuses in liquid or solid to form a solution.

67. Difference between routine maintenance and major maintenance for school facilities:

Ans:

Routine maintenance is handling the minor repairs of the school campus. Major maintenance can be total reconstruction or renovation of the school.

68. What is soil analysis?

Ans:

Soil analysis is the testing of soil to determine the nutritional and elemental composition of soil. It is generally tested for knowing the contents of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous.

69. State the building codes.

Ans:

These codes are the set of specifications to ensure the safety associated with any building construction. These codes are associated with the height, spacing, and installation of the building. These codes play an important role in vacating the building in case of any emergency situations.
From these interview questions, you will get an idea of the questions interviewer can ask you in the civil engineering position interview. Refer to some more sample questions here and revise all the answers carefully.

70. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.

Ans:

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.



 

71. Why are steel plates inserted inside bearings in elastomeric bearings?

Ans:

In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging. In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.

72. In case if concrete box girder bridges how is the number of cells determined?

Ans:

When the depth of a box girder bridge exceed 1/6th or 1/5th of the bridge width then the design recommended is that of a single cell box girder bridge. But in case the depth of the bridge is lower than 1/6th of the bridge width then a twin-cell or in some cases multiple cell is the preferred choice. One should also note that even in the cases of wider bridges where there depths are comparatively low the number of cells should be minimized. This is so as there is noticeably not much improvement in the transverse load distribution when the number of cells of the box girder is higher than three or more.

73. Under what circumstances should pot bearings be used instead of elastomeric bearings?

Ans:

Pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in situations where there are chances of high vertical loads in combinations of very large angle of rotations. Elastomeric bearings always require a large bearing surface so that a compression is maintained between the contact surfaces in between the piers and the bearings. This is not possible to maintained in high load and rotation environment. Also the usage of elastomeric bearings leads to the uneven distribution of stress on the piers. This results in some highly induced stresses to be targeted at the piers henceforth damaging them. Due to the above reasons pot bearings are preferred over elastomeric bearings in such cases.

74. Why should pumping be not used in case of concreting works?

Ans:

During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.

75. Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?

Ans:

The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete. Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites. Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.

76. What made you decide to become a civil engineer?

Ans:

This question allows candidates to explain their reasons for becoming a civil engineer. The answer will be unique to individuals and will give you insight into what inspired them to choose this career path.

77. Explain what are the problems one might face while having a Cantilever balcony?

Ans:

Cantilever balcony are usually unsupported and extend outwards, so the problem with Cantilever balconies are
• Excess deflection or bounce
• Weakness of the deck structure
• Rot and water damage to the interior of the house
• Unevenness inside the house
• Can’t use the balcony for gardening or other purposes as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight

78. Why do you want to work for our company?

Ans:

This question lets you see if the applicants have done their homework on the particular company. Before interviewing, it is critical that an applicant prepare to ask and answer questions relating to the company’s mission statement and priorities in accomplishing those goals.

79. What to look for in an answer:

Ans:

An answer that shows that the applicant researched the company before applying
Details about the company that make it different from others
An answer that reflects the company’s mission statement
Example: “I would like to work at HTWW Engineering because of the excellent reputation it has for doing a job efficiently, but also in a way that enhances the structure so that it represents the high standards of this company. Clients who employ this company should be confident that the work will be accomplished in a fastidious manner with attention to important details that will make the owner proud for many decades.”

80. What kind of personality traits do you believe a civil engineer needs to be successful?

Ans:

This question evaluates the ability of candidates to show that they understand the role and know what is necessary to be successful. This allows applicants to voice the traits that they believe are necessary for the job, as well as those required by senior management.




 

81. What to look for in an answer:

Ans:

A thoughtful answer that encompasses what is necessary to do the job well
An answer that shows the individual is knowledgeable about the frustrations that can be present in this particular job
A well-rounded viewpoint about the pros and cons of the job
Example: “I think that civil engineers need to have patience, flexibility and self-discipline to be successful. A deadline can be frustrating, particularly when there are many unexpected delays. But the occupation is extremely rewarding, and it takes a special type of person to excel in this field. Civil engineers have to consider state and local requirements, as well as the needs of the client.”

82. How do you interact with clients?

Ans:

This question helps the interviewer determine how the candidate will interact with clients who have many different temperaments and desires. If the civil engineer can’t communicate effectively with the client, an unhappy and dissatisfied relationship will result.

83. What to look for in an answer:

Ans:

A truthful answer that lets you know the person’s strengths
An answer that shows the applicant knows the importance of maintaining good relationships with clients
An answer that doesn’t shy away from the fact that there are often conflicts between the client and engineer, but they must be handled professionally
Example: “Clients play a critical role in the process, whether it is in the planning, design, construction, maintenance or operation of the infrastructure. Their input cannot be ignored or disrespected. At the same time, the engineer’s expertise must shine. I believe that my patience, knowledge and sincerity will help me during these interactions with clients.”

84. What are the biggest challenges that you believe civil engineers face?

Ans:

This is a great way to gauge whether the applicant is aware of the latest trends in the industry.

85. What to look for in an answer:

Ans:

A honest person will readily admit that there are challenges in all jobs
Look for work ethics that reflect the company’s values
Listen for clues in how the applicant would resolve the conflict
Example: “In my opinion, the biggest challenge that civil engineers face is dealing with clients who want to take shortcuts in order to get the job done on time. Persuading the client that taking shortcuts is not only unethical but can also be dangerous is sometimes a difficult task. It is imperative to gain their cooperation in order to protect the integrity of the company so that it remains a viable leader in the industry.”

86. What do you believe should be the number-one priority for any civil engineer?

Ans:

This answer shows what would be the main priority to the applicant and displays how well he or she is aware of the most important job qualifications.

87. What to look for in an answer:

Ans:

Look for an answer that reflects the company’s values and mission statement
Listen for sincerity as the applicant discusses the priority
Watch for hesitancy. An honest answer typically is easy for the applicant to formulate if he or she has given the matter much thought.
Example: “I believe that protecting the health of the public and environment should be utmost in the mind of civil engineers. In doing so, they also protect the reputation and respectability of their employer.”
If a design flaw on a completed construction caused an accident, would you bring this to the attention of upper management?
This answer gives the interviewer insight into the character of the applicant and lets you know if the applicant is right for the job.

88. What to look for in an answer:

Ans:

Look for a straight forward answer that is given without hesitation
Listen for sincerity in the individual’s answer
A person with a strong work ethic should know the right thing to do in this scenario
Name various authorities or workers on a construction site?
Senior Engineer/Project manager
Site Engineer
Contracter
Mistri
Mason/labor

89. What is least cover provided for different RCC Members?

Ans:

Footing = 50 mm
Column = 40mm
Beam = 25mm
Slab = 20mm

90. What are the functions of column in a building?

Ans:

Column is a verticle member in building whose primary function is to support structural load and transfer it through beams. Upper columns transfers the load to the lower columns and finally to the ground through footings.


 

91. What is the cement sand & aggregate ratios for various grades of concrete mix?

Ans:

M10 – 1:3:6
M15 – 1:2:4
M20 – 1:1.5:3
M25 – 1:1:2
M30 – 1:1:1

92. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Ans:

Honeycomb, also known as airpocket, is nothing but the air voids in concrete. It is usually formed during concrete casting.

93. Does Water damage concrete?

Ans:

Plain concrete is not affected or damaged by water but Reinforced Concrete (RCC) can be damaged due to water. This is because the water may seep into the concrete and corrode the steel reinforcement inside.

94. What is the initial and final setting time of ideal cement mix?

Ans:

Initial setting time for ideal cement mix is around 30 minutes for almost all kind of cements. For masonry cement it can be 90minutes. Final setting time of ideal cement mix should be 10 hours at max. For masonry cement it shouldn’t exceed 24hours.

95. What are common methods of curing the concrete?

Ans:

Spraying
Wet covering of Surface
Ponding
Application of curing chemicals
Steam curing

96. What is the formula for weight of steel?

Ans:

Weight of steel in kg can be calculate by formula (D2*L)/162; where D is diameter of steel bar in millimeter and L is total length of steel bar in meter.

97. What do you know about “TMT”?

Ans:

TMT stands for “Thermo Mechanically Treated”. Generally we use TMT bars and sheet for construction purposes for the reason that they have high strength and high corrosion resistance compared to normal steels.

98. What is difference between working stress method and limit state method?

Ans:

Working stress method is an elastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load upto elastic limit. Whereas, limit state method is a plastic design method in which structure is designed to bear the load beyond plastic limit.

99. What field tests are required for quality check of cement?

Ans:

Quality of cement can be checked with color, physical properties, etc. Cement should have grey color with light greenish shade. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If hand is inserted in a heap of cement or its bags, it should feel cool. When pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sink. Also, it should be lump free.

100. What are the types of foundation used in construction?

Ans:

There are basically two types of foundation: Shallow & Deep foundation. Again shallow foundation can be classified as spread footing, combined footing, strap or cantilever footing and finally mat or raft footing. Deep foundations can be classified as pile footing, pier footing, caissons footing and well foundation.



 

101. What are the types of cement?

Ans:

There are various types of cement which are: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Coloured Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, etc.

102. What is guniting?

Ans:

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces.

103. What is the function of sand in mortar?

Ans:

The main role of sand (aggregate) in mortar or plaster is to provide core strength, but it has other benefits too. If water is mixed with binder without adding sand to the mixture, both compressive and tensile strength of the mixture would be drastically lower than in mixture with added sand. It also helps to prevent mortar shrinkage, increases density and helps in setting.

104. What are various tests for checking brick quality?

Ans:

We can use water absorption test, hardness test, shape & size, crushing strength test, soundness test, etc. to check the brick quality. In water absorption test, we dip the brick for 16 hours in water. If weight of brick after dipping in water doesn’t exceed by 20%, it can be considered as first class brick, if below 22.5% it can be considered as second class brick, if below 25% it can be considered as third class brick. In crushing test, it crushing strength should be minimum of 10 N/mm2 for first class brick, 7.5 N/mm2for second class bricks. In hardness test, we scratch the brick with nails. It should be scratch free. In soundness test we check the metallic sound by striking two bricks with each other.

105. What is void ratio?

Ans:

Void ratio is the ratio of volume of voids to volume of solids.
The civil engineering interview questions asked above are useful knowledge required in day-to-day work on field as a site engineer. Hence, it is vital to have sound knowledge of these basic questions.