Best selenium interview questions with answers to proceed interview with HR. Here are questions about automation and tools. Tips and Tricks for cracking selenium interview.

If there is any new Selenium interview question that have been asked to you, kindly post it in the the comment section.


1. What is Automation Testing?


Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves the use of a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

2. What are the benefits of Automation Testing?


Benefits of Automation testing are:

  • Supports execution of repeated test cases
  • Aids in testing a large test matrix
  • Enables parallel execution
  • Encourages unattended execution
  • Improves accuracy thereby reducing human-generated errors
  • Saves time and money

3. Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?



  • is a free and open source
  • have a large user base and helping communities
  • have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
  • have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
  • supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
  • has fresh and regular repository developments
  • supports distributed testing

4. What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?


Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web-based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.

Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason, it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.

The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:

  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows a user to create test scripts in the desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
  • Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
  • Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.

5. What are the limitations of Selenium?


Following are the limitations of Selenium:

  • Selenium supports testing of only web-based applications
  • Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Captcha and Barcode readers cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Reports can only be generated using third-party tools like TestNG or JUnit.
  • As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support through the user can find numerous helping communities.
  • The user is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.

6. What is the difference between Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, and WebDriver?



Selenium IDE

Selenium RC


Browser Compatibility

Selenium IDE comes as a Firefox plugin, thus it supports only Firefox

Selenium RC supports a varied range of versions of Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer and Opera

WebDriver supports a varied range of versions of Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer and Opera.

Also supports HtmlUnitDriver which is a GUI less or headless browser.

Record and Playback

Selenium IDE supports record and playback feature

Selenium RC doesn’t supports record and playback feature

WebDriver doesn’t support record and playback feature

Server Requirement

Selenium IDE doesn’t require any server to be started before executing the test scripts

Selenium RC requires server to be started before executing the test scripts

WebDriver doesn’t require any server to be started before executing the test scripts


Selenium IDE is a Javascript based framework

Selenium RC is a JavaScript based Framework

WebDriver uses the browser’s native compatibility to automation

Object Oriented

Selenium IDE is not an object oriented tool

Selenium RC is semi object oriented tool

WebDriver is a purely object oriented tool

Dynamic Finders

(for locating web elements on a webpage)

Selenium IDE doesn’t support dynamic finders

Selenium RC doesn’t support dynamic finders

WebDriver supports dynamic finders

Handling Alerts, Navigations, Dropdowns

Selenium IDE doesn’t explicitly provides aids to handle alerts, navigations, dropdowns

Selenium RC doesn’t explicitly provides aids to handle alerts, navigations, dropdowns

WebDriver offers a wide range of utilities and classes that helps in handling alerts, navigations, and dropdowns efficiently and effectively.

WAP (iPhone/Android) Testing

Selenium IDE doesn’t support testing of iPhone/Andriod applications

Selenium RC doesn’t support testing of iPhone/Andriod applications

WebDriver is designed in a way to efficiently support testing of iPhone/Android applications. The tool comes with a large range of drivers for WAP based testing.

For example, AndroidDriver, iPhoneDriver

Listener Support

Selenium IDE doesn’t support listeners

Selenium RC doesn’t support listeners

WebDriver supports the implementation of Listeners


Selenium IDE is fast as it is plugged in with the web-browser that launches the test. Thus, the IDE and browser communicates directly

Selenium RC is slower than WebDriver as it doesn’t communicates directly with the browser; rather it sends selenese commands over to Selenium Core which in turn communicates with the browser.

WebDriver communicates directly with the web browsers. Thus making it much faster.

7. When should I use Selenium IDE?


Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature make it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.

8. What are the different types of locators in Selenium?


The locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:

  • ID
  • ClassName
  • Name
  • TagName
  • LinkText
  • PartialLinkText
  • Xpath
  • CSS Selector
  • DOM

9. What is the difference between assert and verify commands?


Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.

Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halt i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.

10. What is an XPath?


XPath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, XPath can be used to locate HTML elements.

The fundamental behind locating elements using XPath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.


11. What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?


Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.

12. What is Same origin policy and how it can be handled?


The problem of same origin policy disallows to access the DOM of a document from an origin that is different from the origin we are trying to access the document.

Origin is a sequential combination of scheme, host, and port of the URL. For example, for a URL, the origin is a combination of http,, 80 correspondingly.

Thus the Selenium Core (JavaScript Program) cannot access the elements from an origin that is different from where it was launched. For Example, if I have launched the JavaScript Program from “”, then I would be able to access the pages within the same domain such as “” or “”. The other domains like, would no more be accessible.

So, In order to handle same origin policy, Selenium Remote Control was introduced.

13. When should I use Selenium Grid?


Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

14. What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?


Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination, are popularly known as Selenium 2.
Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.

15. Which is the latest Selenium tool?



16. How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?


The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:

  • WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
  • WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
  • WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

17. What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?


The different drivers available in WebDriver are:

  • FirefoxDriver
  • InternetExplorerDriver
  • ChromeDriver
  • SafariDriver
  • OperaDriver
  • AndroidDriver
  • IPhoneDriver
  • HtmlUnitDriver

18. What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?


There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:

  • Implicit Wait
  • Explicit Wait

Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.

Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.

19. How to type in a textbox using Selenium?


The user can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the textbox.

WebElement username = drv.findElement(“Email”));
// entering username

20. How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?


WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.

  1. isDisplayed()
  2. isSelected()
  3. isEnabled()


boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean buttonSelected = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();


21. How can we get a text of a web element?


Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.


String Text = driver.findElement(“Text”)).getText();

22. How to select value in a dropdown?


The value in the dropdown can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.



Select selectByValue = new Select(driver.findElement(“SelectID_One”)));


Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(“SelectID_Two”)));


Select selectByIndex = new Select(driver.findElement(“SelectID_Three”)));

23. What are the different types of navigation commands?


Following are the navigation commands:

navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.

Sample code:


navigate().forward() – This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.

Sample code:


navigate().refresh() – This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.

Sample code:


navigate().to() – This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.

Sample code:


24. How to click on a hyper link using linkText?



The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page.

The above-mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command.


The above command finds the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.

25. How to handle frame in WebDriver?


An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document within the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.

Select iframe by id

driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“);

Locating iframe using tagName


Locating iframe using index


frame(Name of Frame)

driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);

frame(WebElement element)
Select Parent Window

26. When do we use findElement() and findElements()?


findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.


WebElement element = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.

List elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

27. How to find more than one web element in the list?


At times, we may come across elements of same type like multiple hyperlinks, images etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.

Sample Code

// Storing the list
List elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//div[@id='example']//ul//li"));
// Fetching the size of the list
int listSize = elementList.size();
for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)
// Clicking on each service provider link
// Navigating back to the previous page that stores link to service providers

28. What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit command?


close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does it return any value.

quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

29. Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?


Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. Therefore, windows pop up cannot be handled using Selenium.

30. How can we handle web-based pop up?


WebDriver offers the users with a very efficient way to handle these pop-ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be using along with the Alert interface.

void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop-up window appears.
void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop-up window appears.
String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed on the alert box.
void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.
// accepting javascript alert
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();


31. How can we handle windows based pop up?


Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing, that means, it doesn’t support testing of windows based applications. However Selenium alone can’t help the situation but along with some third-party intervention, this problem can be overcome. There are several third-party tools available for handling window based pop-ups along with the selenium like AutoIT, Robot class etc.

32. How to assert title of the web page?


//verify the title of the web page
assertTrue(“The title of the window is incorrect.”,driver.getTitle().equals(“Title of the page”));

33. How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?


WebDriver offers a wide range of interaction utilities that the user can exploit to automate mouse and keyboard events. Action Interface is one such utility which simulates the single user interactions.

Thus, In the following scenario, we have used Action Interface to mouse hover on a drop down which then opens a list of options.

Sample Code:

// Instantiating Action Interface
Actions actions=new Actions(driver);
// howering on the dropdown
actions.moveToElement(driver.findElement("id of the dropdown"))).perform();
// Clicking on one of the items in the list options
WebElement subLinkOption=driver.findElement("id of the sub link"));;

34. How to retrieve CSS properties of an element?


The values of the css properties can be retrieved using a get() method:


driver.findElement(“id“)).getCssValue(“name of css attribute”);

35. How to capture screenshot in WebDriver?


import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;
public class CaptureScreenshot {
WebDriver driver;
public void setUp() throws Exception {
driver = new FirefoxDriver();
public void tearDown() throws Exception {
public void test() throws IOException {
// Code to capture the screenshot
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
// Code to copy the screenshot in the desired location
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("C:\CaptureScreenshot\google.jpg"))

36. What is Junit?


Junit is a unit testing framework introduced by Apache. Junit is based on Java.

37. What are Junit annotations?


Following are the JUnit Annotations:

@Test: Annotation lets the system know that the method annotated as @Test is a test method. There can be multiple test methods in a single test script.
@Before: Method annotated as @Before lets the system know that this method shall be executed every time before each of the test methods.
@After: Method annotated as @After lets the system know that this method shall be executed every time after each of the test method.
@BeforeClass: Method annotated as @BeforeClass lets the system know that this method shall be executed once before any of the test methods.
@AfterClass: Method annotated as @AfterClass lets the system know that this method shall be executed once after any of the test methods.
@Ignore: Method annotated as @Ignore lets the system know that this method shall not be executed.

38. What is TestNG and how is it better than Junit?


TestNG is an advanced framework designed in a way to leverage the benefits by both the developers and testers. With the commencement of the frameworks, JUnit gained an enormous popularity across the Java applications, Java developers and Java testers with remarkably increasing the code quality. Despite being easy to use and straightforward, JUnit has its own limitations which give rise to the need of bringing TestNG into the picture. TestNG is an open source framework which is distributed under the Apache Software License and is readily available for download.

TestNG with WebDriver provides an efficient and effective test result format that can, in turn, be shared with the stakeholders to have a glimpse on the product’s/application’s health thereby eliminating the drawback of WebDriver’s incapability to generate test reports. TestNG has an inbuilt exception handling mechanism which lets the program to run without terminating unexpectedly.

There are various advantages that make TestNG superior to JUnit. Some of them are:

  • Added advance and easy annotations
  • Execution patterns can set
  • Concurrent execution of test scripts
  • Test case dependencies can be set

39. How to set test case priority in TestNG?


Setting Priority in TestNG

Code Snippet
package TestNG;

import org.testng.annotations.*;
public class SettingPriority {
public void method1() {
public void method2() {
public void method3() {

Test Execution Sequence:


40. What is a framework?


The framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.


41. What are the advantages of Automation framework?


The advantage of Test Automation framework

  • Reusability of code
  • Maximum coverage
  • Recovery scenario
  • Low-cost maintenance
  • Minimal manual intervention
  • Easy Reporting

42. What are the different types of frameworks?


Below are the different types of frameworks:

Module Based Testing Framework: The framework divides the entire “Application Under Test” into the number of logical and isolated modules. For each module, we create a separate and independent test script. Thus, when these test scripts taken together builds a larger test script representing more than one module.
Library Architecture Testing Framework: The basic fundamental behind the framework is to determine the common steps and group them into functions under a library and call those functions in the test scripts whenever required.
Data Driven Testing Framework: Data Driven Testing Framework helps the user segregate the test script logic and the test data from each other. It lets the user store the test data into an external database. The data is conventionally stored in “Key-Value” pairs. Thus, the key can be used to access and populate the data within the test scripts.
Keyword Driven Testing Framework: The Keyword Driven testing framework is an extension to Data-driven Testing Framework in a sense that it not only segregates the test data from the scripts, it also keeps the certain set of code belonging to the test script into an external data file.
Hybrid Testing Framework: Hybrid Testing Framework is a combination of more than one above mentioned frameworks. The best thing about such a setup is that it leverages the benefits of all kinds of associated frameworks.
Behavior Driven Development Framework: Behavior Driven Development framework allows automation of functional validations in easily readable and understandable format to Business Analysts, Developers, Testers, etc.

43. How can I read test data from excels?


Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API. See detailed tutorial here.

44. Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?


WebDriver cannot test Mobile applications. WebDriver is a web-based testing tool, therefore applications on the mobile browsers can be tested.

45. Can captcha be automated?


No, captcha and barcode reader cannot be automated.

46. What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?


Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Thus, whenever the element is required within the script, the locator value can be populated from the Object Repository. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location instead of hardcoding them within the scripts.

In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.

That’s all for now.

47. what is Selenium composed of?


Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing. It is composed of

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) : It is a tool for recording and playing back. It is a firefox plugin
WebDriver and RC: It provide the APIs for a variety of languages like Java, .NET, PHP, etc. With most of the browsers Webdriver and RC works.
Grid: With the help of Grid you can distribute tests on multiple machines so that test can be run parallel which helps in cutting down the time required for running in browser test suites

48. What is Selenium 2.0 ?


Web Testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0

Selenium 2.0

49. Mention what is Selenium 3.0?


Selenium 3.0 is the latest version of Selenium. It has released 2 beta versions of selenium 3.0 with few of the below changes:

Here are few new features added to Selenium 3.0

Beta 1 updatesBeta 2 updates (Only for Java)
  • Minimum Java version is now 8+
  • System property webdriver.firefox.marionette now forces the server in marionette or legacy firefox driver mode, ignoring any related Desired Capability
  • It will support for Firefox Via Mozilla’s geckodriver
  • Grid fixes NPE’s on registration when -browser not specified
  • Support for Edge is provided by MS
  • It now supports Safari on MacOS via Apple’s own Safari driver
  • Update GeckoDriver –port argument in all bindings

50. How will you find an element using Selenium?


In Selenium every object or control in a web page is referred as an elements, there are different ways to find an element in a web page they are

  • ID
  • Name
  • Tag
  • Attribute
  • CSS
  • Linktext
  • PartialLink Text
  • Xpath etc


51. List out the test types that are supported by Selenium?


For web based application testing selenium can be used
The test types can be supported are

  • Functional
  • Regression

For post release validation with continuous integration automation tool could be used

  • Jenkins
  • Hudson
  • Quick Build
  • CruiseCont

52. Explain what is assertion in Selenium and what are the types of assertion?


Assertion is used as a verification point. It verifies that the state of the application conforms to what is expected. The types of assertion are “assert” , “verify” and “waifFor”.

53. Mention what is the use of X-path?


X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.

Refer Complete Guide on XPath

54. Explain the difference between single and double slash in X-path? Single slash ‘/ ’


Single slash ( / ) start selection from the document node
It allows you to create ‘absolute’ path expressions
Double Slash ‘// ’
Double slash ( // ) start selection matching anywhere in the document
It enables to create ‘relative’ path expressions

55. List out the technical challenges with Selenium? Technical challenges with Selenium are


Selenium supports only web based applications
It does not support the Bitmap comparison
For any reporting related capabilities have to depend on third party tools
No vendor support for tool compared to commercial tools like HP UFT
As there is no object repository concept in Selenium, maintainability of objects becomes difficult

56. What is the difference between type keys and type commands ?


TypeKeys() will trigger JavaScript event in most of the cases whereas .type() won’t. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript whereas .typekeys() emulates like actual user typing

57. What is the difference between verify and assert commands?


Assert: Assert allows to check whether an element is on the page or not. The test will stop on the step failed, if the asserted element is not available. In other words, the test will terminated at the point where check fails.

Verify: Verify command will check whether the element is on the page, if it is not then the test will carry on executing. In verification, all the commands are going to run guaranteed even if any of test fails.

58. What is JUnit Annotations and what are different types of annotations which are useful ?


In JAVA a special form of syntactic meta-data can be added to Java source code, this is know as Annotations. Variables, parameters, packages, methods and classes are annotated some of the Junit annotations which can be useful are

  • Test
  • Before
  • After
  • Ignore
  • BeforeClass
  • AfterClass
  • RunWith

59. While using click command can you use screen coordinate?


To click on specific part of element, you would need to use clickAT command. ClickAt command accepts element locator and x, y co-ordinates as arguments- clickAt (locator, cordString)

60. What are the advantages of Selenium?


It supports C#, PHP, Java, Perl, Phython
It supports different OS like Windows, Linux and Mac OS
It has got powerful methods to locate elements (Xpath, DOM , CSS)
It has highly developer community supported by Google


61. Why testers should opt for Selenium and not QTP? Selenium is more popular than QTP as


Selenium is an open source whereas QTP is a commercial tool
Selenium is used specially for testing web based applications while QTP can be used for testing client server application also
Selenium supports Firefox, IE, Opera, Safari on operating systems like Windows, Mac, Linux etc. however QTP is limited to Internet Explorer on Windows.
Selenium supports many programming languages like Ruby, Perl, Python whereas QTP supports only VB script

62. What are the four parameter you have to pass in Selenium? Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are


  • Host
  • Port Number
  • Browser
  • URL

63. What is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?


Both will delay the speed of execution.

Thread.sleep () : It will stop the current (java) thread for the specified period of time. Its done only once

It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: thread.sleep(2000)- It will wait for 2 seconds
It waits only once at the command given at sleep

SetSpeed () : For specific amount of time it will stop the execution for every selenium command.
It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: selenium.setSpeed(“2000”)- It will wait for 2 seconds
Runs each command after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed
This command is useful for demonstration purpose or if you are using a slow web application

64. What is same origin policy? How you can avoid same origin policy?


The “Same Origin Policy” is introduced for security reason, and it ensures that content of your site will never be accessible by a script from another site. As per the policy, any code loaded within the browser can only operate within that website’s domain.

To avoid “Same Origin Policy” proxy injection method is used, in proxy injection mode the Selenium Server acts as a client configured HTTP proxy , which sits between the browser and application under test and then masks the AUT under a fictional URL

65. What is heightened privileges browsers?


The purpose of heightened privileges is similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that are not commonly permitted. The key difference is that the browsers are launced in a special mode called heightened privileges. By using these browser mode, Selenium core can open the AUT directly and also read/write its content without passing the whole AUT through the Selenium RC server.

66. How you can use “submit” a form using Selenium ?


You can use “submit” method on element to submit form-

element.submit () ;

Alternatively you can use click method on the element which does form submission

67. What are the features of TestNG and list some of the functionality in TestNG which makes it more effective?


TestNG is a testing framework based on JUnit and NUnit to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from Unit Testing to Integration Testing. And the functionality which makes it efficient testing framework are

  • Support for annotations
  • Support for data-driven testing
  • Flexible test configuration
  • Ability to re-execute failed test cases

68. Mention what is the difference between Implicit wait and Explicit wait?


Implicit Wait: Sets a timeout for all successive Web Element searches. For the specified amount of time it will try looking for element again and again before throwing a NoSuchElementException. It waits for elements to show up.

Explicit Wait : It is a one-timer, used for a particular search.

69. Which attribute you should consider throughout the script in frame for “if no frame Id as well as no frame name”?


You can use…..driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//iframe”))….

This will return list of frames.

You will ned to switch to each and every frame and search for locator which we want.

Then break the loop

70. Explain what is the difference between find elements () and find element () ?


find element (): It finds the first element within the current page using the given “locating mechanism”. It returns a single WebElement

findElements () : Using the given “locating mechanism” find all the elements within the current page. It returns a list of web elements.


71. Explain what are the JUnits annotation linked with Selenium?


The JUnits annotation linked with Selenium are

@Before public void method() – It will perform the method () before each test, this method can prepare the test
@Test public void method() – Annotations @Test identifies that this method is a test method environment
@After public void method()– To execute a method before this annotation is used, test method must start with test@Before

72. Explain what is Datadriven framework and Keyword driven?


Datadriven framework: In this framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while Test Case logic resides in Test Scripts. Test data is read from the external files ( Excel Files) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used for both for input values and for verification values.

Keyworddriven framework: The keyword driven frameworks requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation. In a keyword driven test, the functionality of the application under test is documented in a table as well as step by step instructions for each test.

73. Explain how you can login into any site if it’s showing any authentication popup for password and username?


Pass the username and password with url


74. Explain how to assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0 ?


WebElement el = driver.findElement(“ElementID”))
//get test from element and stored in text variable
String text = el.getText();
//assert text from expected
Assert.assertEquals(“Element Text”, text);

75. Explain what is the difference between Borland Silk and Selenium?


Silk Test Tool
Borland Silk test is not a free testing tool
Silk test supports only Internet Explorer and Firefox
Silk test uses test scripting language
Silk test can be used for client server applications

Selenium Test Tool

Selenium is completely free test automation tool
Selenium supports many browsers like Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Opera and so on
Selenium suite has the flexibility to use many languages like Java, Ruby,Perl and so on
Selenium can be used for only web application

76. Explain how Selenium Grid works?


Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. These tests are redirected to Selenium Webdriver, which launch the browser and run the test. With entire test suite, it allows for running tests in parallel.

77. Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?


Yes. But not as effectively as a dedicated Performance Testing tool like Loadrunner.

78. List the advantages of Webdriver over Selenium Server?


If you are using Selenium-WebDriver, you don’t need the Selenium Server as it is using totally different technology
Selenium Server provides Selenium RC functionality which is used for Selenium 1.0 backwards compatibility
Selenium Web driver makes direct calls to browser using each browsers native support for automation, while Selenium RC requires selenium server to inject Javascript into the browser

79. Mention what are the capabilities of Selenium WebDriver or Selenium 2.0 ?


WebDriver should be used when requiring improvement support for

Handling multiple frames, pop ups , multiple browser windows and alerts
Page navigation and drag & drop
Ajax based UI elements
Multi browser testing including improved functionality for browser not well supported by Selenium 1.0

80. While injecting capabilities in webdriver to perform tests on a browser which is not supported by a webdriver what is the limitation that one can come across?


Major limitation of injecting capabilities is that “findElement” command may not work as expected.


81. Explain how you can find broken images in a page using Selenium Web driver ?


To find the broken images in a page using Selenium web driver is

  • Get XPath and get all the links in the page using tag name
  • In the page click on each and every link
  • Look for 404/500 in the target page title

82. Explain how you can handle colors in web driver?


To handle colors in web driver you can use

Use getCssValue(arg0) function to get the colors by sending ‘color’ string as an argument

83. Using web driver how you can store a value which is text box?


You can use following command to store a value which is text box using web driver

driver.findElement(“your Textbox”)).sendKeys(“your keyword”);

84. Explain how you can switch between frames?


To switch between frames webdrivers [ driver.switchTo().frame() ] method takes one of the three possible arguments

A number: It selects the number by its (zero-based) index
A number or ID: Select a frame by its name or ID
Previously found WebElement: Using its previously located WebElement select a frame

85. Mention 5 different exceptions you had in Selenium web driver?


The 5 different exceptions you had in Selenium web drivers are

  • WebDriverException
  • NoAlertPresentException
  • NoSuchWindowException
  • NoSuchElementException
  • TimeoutException

86. Explain using Webdriver how you can perform double click ?


You can perform double click by using

Syntax- Actions act = new Actions (driver);

87. How will you use Selenium to upload a file ?


You can use “type”command to type in a file input box of upload file. Then, you have to use “Robot” class in JAVA to make file upload work.

88. Which web driver implementation is fastest?


HTMLUnit Driver implementation is fastest, HTMLUnitDriver does not execute tests on browser but plain http request, which is far quick than launching a browser and executing tests

89. Explain how you can handle frames using Selenium 2.0 ?


To bring control on HTML frame you can use “SwitchTo” frame method-


To specify a frame you can use index number


This would bring control on frame named- “frameName” of the 4th sub frame names “parentFrame”

90. What is the difference between getWindowhandles() and getwindowhandle() ?


getwindowhandles(): It is used to get the address of all the open browser and its return type is Set
getwindowhandle(): It is used to get the address of the current browser where the control is and return type is string


91. Explain how you can switch back from a frame?


To switch back from a frame use method defaultContent()


92. List out different types of locators?


Different types of locators are

  • By.tagName()
  • By.className()
  • By.linkText()
  • By.partialLinkText()
  • By.xpath
  • By.cssSelector()

93. What is the command that is used in order to display the values of a variable into the output console or log?


In order to display a constant string, command can be used is echo
If order to display the value of a variable you can use command like echo ${variable name>>
Above is using PHP. If you are using Java, replace echo with System.out.println

94. Explain how you can use recovery scenario with Selenium?


Recovery scenarios depends upon the programming language you use. If you are using Java then you can use exception handling to overcome same. By using “Try Catch Block” within your Selenium WebDriver Java tests

95. Explain how to iterate through options in test script?


To iterate through options in test script you can loop features of the programming language, for example to type different test data in a text box you can use “for” loop in Java

// test data collection in an array

String[ ] testData = { “test1” , “test2” , “test3” } ;

// iterate through each test data

For (string s: test data) { selenium.type ( “elementLocator”, testData) ; }

96. How can you prepare customized html report using TestNG in hybrid framework ?


There are three ways

Junit: With the help of ANT
TestNG: Using inbuilt default.html to get the HTML report. Also XST reports from ANT, Selenium, Testng combinations
Using our own customized reports using XSL jar for converting XML content to HTML

97. From your test script how you can create html test report?


To create html test report there are three ways

TestNG: Using inbuilt default.html to get the HTML report. Also XLST reports from ANT, Selenium, TestNG combination
JUnit: With the help of ANT
Using our own customized reports using XSL jar for converting XML content to HTML

98. Explain how you can insert a break point in Selenium IDE ?


In Selenium IDE to insert a break point

Select “Toggle break point” by right click on the command in Selenium IDE
Press “B” on the keyboard and select the command in Selenium IDE
Multiple break points can be set in Selenium IDE

99. What is Selenese and what are the types of Selenese ?


Selenese is a selenium set of command which are used for running the test

There are three types of Selenese

Actions: It is used for performing the operations and interactions with the target elements
Assertions: It is used as a check points
Accessors: It is used for storing the values in a variable

100. Explain what are the limitations of Selenium IDE?


The limitations of Selenium IDE

  • Exceptional handling is not present
  • Selenium IDE uses only HTML languages
  • External databases reading is not possible with IDE
  • Reading from the external files like .txt, .xls is not possible
  • Conditional or branching statements execution like if,else, select statements is not possible


101. What are the two modes of views in Selenium IDE ?


Either Selenium IDE can be opened as a pop up window or in side bar

102. In selenium IDE what are the element locators that can be used to locate elements on web page?


In selenium there are mainly 4 locators that are used

  • X-path locators
  • Css locators
  • Html id
  • Html name

103. In Selenium IDE how you can generate random numbers and dates for test data ?


In Selenium IDE you can generate random numbers by using Java Script




And for



javascript{new Date()}

104. How you can convert any Selenium IDE tests from Selenese to another language?


You can use the format option of Selenium IDE to convert tests into another programming language

105. Using Selenium IDE is it possible to get data from a particular html table cell ?


You can use the “storeTable” command

Example store text from cell 0,2 from an html table


Css=#table 0.2


106. Explain what can cause a Selenium IDE test to fail?


When a locator has changed and Selenium IDE cannot locate the element
When element Selenium IDE waiting to access did not appear on the web page and the operation timed out
When element Selenium IDE was trying to access was not created

107. Explain how you can debug the tests in Selenium IDE ?


Insert a break point from the location where you want to execute step by step
Run the test case
At the given break point execution will be paused
To continues with the next step click on the Blue button
To run commands at a time click on run button

108. From Selenium IDE how you can execute a single line?


From Selenium IDE single line command can be executed in two ways

  • Select “Execute this command” by right clicking on the command in Selenium IDE
  • Press “X” key on the keyboard after selecting the command in Selenium IDE

109. In which format does source view shows your script in Selenium IDE ?


In Selenium IDE source view shows your script in XML format

110. Explain how you can insert a start point in Selenium IDE?


In two ways selenium IDE can be set

Press “S” key on the keyboard and select the command in Selenium IDE
In Seleniun IDE right click on the command and the select “Set / Clear Start Point”


111. What if you have written your own element locator and how would you test it?


To test the locator one can use “Find Button” of Selenium IDE, as you click on it, you would see on screen an element being highlighted provided your element locator is right or or else an error message will be displayed

112. What is regular expressions? How you can use regular expressions in Selenium ?


A regular expression is a special text string used for describing a search pattern. In Selenium IDE regular expression can be used with the keyword- regexp: as a prefix to the value and patterns needs to be included for the expected values.

113. What are core extension ?


If you want to “extend” the defualt functionality provided by Selenium Function Library , you can create a Core Extension. They are also called “User Extension”. You can even download ready-made Core Extension created by other Selenium enthusiats.

114. How will you verify the specific position of an web element


You can use verifyElementPositionLeft & verifyElementPositionTop. It does a pixel comparison of the position of the element from the Left and Top of page respectively

115. How can you retrive the message in an alert box ?


You can use the storeAlert command which will fetch the message of the alert pop up and store it in a variable.

116. What is selenium RC (Remote Control)?


Selenium IDE have limitations in terms of browser support and language support. By using Selenium RC limitation can be diminished.

On different platforms and different web browser for automating web application selenium RC is used with languages like Java, C#, Perl, Python
Selenium RC is a java based and using any language it can interact with the web application
Using server you can bypass the restriction and run your automation script running against any web application

117. Why Selenium RC is used?


Selenium IDE does not directly support many functions like condition statements, Iteration, logging and reporting of test results, unexpected error handling and so on as IDE supports only HTML language. To handle such issues Selenium RC is used it supports the language like Perl, Ruby, Python, PHP using these languages we can write the program to achieve the IDE issues.

118. Explain what is the main difference between web-driver and RC ?


The main difference between Selenium RC and Webdriver is that, selenium RC injects javascript function into browsers when the page is loaded. On the other hand, Selenium Webdriver drives the browser using browsers built in support

119. What are the advantages of RC?


Advantages of RC are

  • Can read or write data from/ to .xls, .txt, etc
  • It can handle dynamic objects and Ajax based UI elements
  • Loops and conditions can be used for better performance and flexibility
  • Support many Programming languages and Operating Systems
  • For any JAVA script enabled browser Selenium RC can be used

120. Explain what is framework and what are the frameworks available in RC?


A collection of libraries and classes is known as Framework and they are helpful when testers has to automate test cases. NUnit, JUnit, TestNG, Bromine, RSpec, unittest are some of the frameworks available in RC .


121. How can we handle pop-ups in RC ?


To handle pop-ups in RC , using selectWindow method, pop-up window will be selected and windowFocus method will let the control from current window to pop-up windows and perform actions according to script

122. What are the technical limitations while using Selenium RC?


Apart from “same origin policy” restriction from js, Selenium is also restricted from exercising anything that is outside browser.

123. Can we use Selenium RC to drive tests on two different browsers on one operating system without Selenium Grid?


Yes, it is possible when you are not using JAVA testing framework. Instead of using Java testing framework if you are using java client driver of selenium then TestNG allows you to do this. By using “parallel=test” attribute you can set tests to be executed in parallel and can define two different tests, each using different browser.

124. Why to use TestNG with Selenium RC ?


If you want full automation against different server and client platforms, You need a way to invoke the tests from a command line process, reports that tells you what happened and flexibility in how you create your test suites. TestNG gives that flexibility.

125. Explain how you can capture server side log Selenium Server?


To capture server side log in Selenium Server, you can use command

java –jar .jar –log selenium.log

126. Other than the default port 4444 how you can run Selenium Server?


You can run Selenium server on java-jar selenium-server.jar-port other than its default port

127. How Selenium grid hub keeps in touch with RC slave machine?


At predefined time selenium grid hub keeps polling all RC slaves to make sure it is available for testing. The deciding parameter is called “remoteControlPollingIntervalSeconds” and is defined in “grid_configuration.yml”file

128. Using Selenium how can you handle network latency ?


To handle network latency you can use driver.manage.pageloadingtime for network latency

129. To enter values onto text boxes what is the command that can be used?


To enter values onto text boxes we can use command sendkeys()

130. How do you identify an object using selenium?


To identify an object using Selenium you can use

isElementPresent(String locator)

isElementPresent takes a locator as the argument and if found returns a Boolean


131. In Selenium what are Breakpoints and Startpoints?


Breakpoints: When you implement a breakpoint in your code, the execution will stop right there. This helps you to verify that your code is working as expected.
StartpointsStartpoint indicates the point from where the execution should begin. Startpoint can be used when you want to run the testscript from the middle of the code or a breakpoint.

132. Mention why to choose Python over Java in Selenium?


Few points that favor Python over Java to use with Selenium is,

  • Java programs tend to run slower compared to Python programs.
  • Java uses traditional braces to start and ends blocks, while Python uses indentation.
  • Java employs static typing, while Python is dynamically typed.
  • Python is simpler and more compact compared to Java.

133. Mention what are the challenges in Handling Ajax Call in Selenium Webdriver?


The challenges faced in Handling Ajax Call in Selenium Webdriver are

  • Using “pause” command for handling Ajax call is not completely reliable. Long pause time makes the test unacceptably slow and increases the testing time. Instead, “waitforcondition” will be more helpful in testing Ajax applications.
  • It is difficult to assess the risk associated with particular Ajax applications
  • Given full freedom to developers to modify Ajax application makes the testing process challenging
  • Creating automated test request may be difficult for testing tools as such AJAX application often use different encoding or serialization technique to submit POST data.

134. Mention what is IntelliJ?


Intellij is an IDE that helps you to write better and faster code for Selenium. Intellij can be used in the option to Java bean and Eclipse.

135. Mention in what ways you can customize TestNG report?


You can customize TestNG report in two ways,

  • Using ITestListener Interface
  • Using IReporter Interface

136. To generate pdf reports mention what Java API is required?


To generate pdf reports, you need Java API IText.

137. Mention what is Listeners in Selenium WebDriver?


In Selenium WebDriver, Listeners “listen” to the event defined in the selenium script and behave accordingly. It allows customizing TestNG reports or logs. There are two main listeners i.e. WebDriver Listeners and TestNG Listeners.

138. Mention what are the types of Listeners in TestNG?


The types of Listeners in TestNG are,

  • IAnnotationTransformer
  • IAnnotationTransformer2
  • IConfigurable
  • IConfigurationListener
  • IExecutionListener
  • IHookable
  • IInvokedMethodListener
  • IInvokedMethodListener2
  • IMethodInterceptor
  • IReporter
  • ISuiteListener
  • ITestListener

139. Mention what is desired capability? How is it useful in terms of Selenium?


The desired capability is a series of key/value pairs that stores the browser properties like browser name, browser version, the path of the browser driver in the system, etc. to determine the behavior of the browser at run time.

For Selenium,

It can be used to configure the driver instance of Selenium WebDriver.
When you want to run the test cases on a different browser with different operating systems and versions.

140. For Database Testing in Selenium Webdriver what API is required?


For Database Testing in Selenium Webdriver, you need JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) API. It allows you to execute SQL statements.


141. Mention when to use AutoIT?


Selenium is designed to automate web-based applications on different browsers. But to handle window GUI and non-HTML popups in the application you need AutoIT. know more about How to use AutoIT with Selenium

142. Mention why do you need Session Handling while working with Selenium?


While working with Selenium, you need Session Handling. This is because, during test execution, the Selenium WebDriver has to interact with the browser all the time to execute given commands. At the time of execution, it is also possible that, before current execution completes, someone else starts execution of another script, in the same machine and in the same type of browser. So to avoid such situation you need Session Handling.

143. Mention what are the advantages of Using Git Hub For Selenium?


The advantages of Using Git Hub for Selenium are

  • Multiple people when they work on the same project they can update project details and inform other team members simultaneously.
  • Jenkins can help you to build the project from the remote repository regularly. This helps you to keep track of failed builds.